Publications by staff and students, 1985-2001

Ackley, S.F., M.A. Lange, and P. Wadhams. 1988.
Snow cover effects on Antarctic sea ice thickness.
Eos. Transactions, 69 (44): 1262.

Abstract:
Abstract of paper to be presented at AGU Fall Meeting, in San Francisco, 6-11 December 1988. In model simulations of seasonal pack-ice growth, snow cover is treated as insulating layer that inhibits ice growth, but, during field work in 1986, it was found that several factors negate this predicted behaviour. Estimates that snow cover increases sea-ice thickness by 20 to 30% over model predictions by flooding and infiltration mechanism.

Ackley, S.F., M.A. Lange, and P. Wadhams. 1990.
Snow cover effects on Antarctic sea ice thickness.
CRREL Monograph, 90-1: 16-21.

Abstract:
In model simulations of seasonal pack-ice growth, snow cover is treated as insulating layer that inhibits ice growth, but, during field work in 1986, it was found that several factors negate this predicted behaviour. Estimates that snow cover increases sea-ice thickness by 20 to 30% over model predictions by flooding and infiltration mechanisms.

Ackley, S.F., P. Wadhams, and M.A. Lange. 1988.
Sea-ice investigations during the Winter Weddell Sea Project.
Antarctic Journal of the United States, 22 (5): 88-89.

Abstract:
Describes programme from June to September 1986, which attempts to define relationships that govern sea-ice behaviour in austral winter. Measurements included ice deformation and thickness, and effect of surface waves.

Ackley, S.F., P. Wadhams, and M.A. Lange. 1992.
Antarctic ice thickness distributions obtained from aerial photography.
In: Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, 19-21 November 1991, New Carrollton, Maryland.
A.S. Thorndike, C. Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Polar Science Center.
pp. B16-B18.

Abstract:
Presents results from 1986 Winter Weddell Sea Project when air photographs were taken from helicopter on over 20 occasions and analyzed using PC-based image processing system. Technology gives relatively straightforward quantitative method of analyzing data, both for characterization of region for particular experiment and for validation comparisons with satellite and ground-based data.

Aksenov, Y., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Local ice deformation under the influence of natural forces: field observations and analyses of cyclic oscillations.
In: Ice physics and the natural environment.
Wettlaufer, J.S., J.G. Dash, and N. Untersteiner (editors).
Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 281-284.

Abstract:
Discusses spectral structure of cyclic deformations of ice floes, using data from Sea Ice Mechanics Initiative (SIMI) field experiment on Beaufort Sea, 1993-94.

Aldworth, E. 1995.
Snow and ice characteristics of the Bellingshausen Sea during the spring melt.
Deep Sea Research, 42 (4-5): 1021-1045.

Andreas, E.L., M.A. Lange, S.F. Ackley, and P. Wadhams. 1993.
Roughness of Weddell Sea ice and estimates of the air--drag coefficient.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 (C7): 12,439-12,452.

Abstract:
Reports snow surface, ice surface, and ice underside roughness computed from 47 surface elevation profiles collected during transect of Weddell Sea. Roughness for each surface, parameterized as standard deviation of surface elevation, segregates according to whether floe has been deformed, deformed ice having greater roughness than undeformed. Regardless of deformational history, underside roughness is greater than snow surface and ice surface roughnesses, which are nearly equal. From snow surface spectra, roughness scale can be computed that parameterizes air--ice momentum coupling and allows estimation of neutral stability drag coefficient referenced to height of 10 m.

Brandon, M., and P. Wadhams. 1996.
The near-surface hydrography beneath the Odden ice tongue.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report. Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 2.
pp. 360-379.

Abstract:
Describes winter 1993 conditions in the Greenland Sea which gave rise to heat fluxes allowing frazil ice generation developing into pancake ice. In Jan Mayen current ice can exist for long time before short-wave radiation at surface causes decay. Towards the centre of the Greenland Sea ice decays four times more rapidly than Jan Mayen ice. Discusses development of Odden ice tongue considering these results. Fate of water stored in ice may be relevant to formation of Greenland Sea deep water.

Brandon, M.A., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
The near surface hydrography beneath the Odden ice tongue.
Deep-Sea Research II, 46: 1301-1318.

Brigham, L.W. 1995.
Icebreaker transit analysis for a voyage across the Arctic Ocean. In: International Northern Sea Route Programme symposium, 1-6 October 1995, Tokyo, Japan.
Tokyo: Ship & Ocean Foundation.
pp. 391-396.

Brigham, L.W. 1996.
The future of satellite passive microwave data in Arctic navigation.
In: Oceanology international 96: the global ocean - towards operational oceanography.
New Malden, Surrey: Spearhead: 3.
pp. 307-312.

Brigham, L.W. 1997.
An international polar navigation code for the twenty-first century.
Polar Record, 33 (187): 283-284.

Brigham, L.W. 1997.
The Northern Sea Route, 1996.
Polar Record, 33 (187): 333-336.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
From Arktika to the next millennium.
Naval History, 1(4): 44-45.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
The Northern Sea Route, 1997.
Polar Record, 34 (190): 219-224.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
The Northern Sea Route: Soviet legacy and uncertain future.
British East-West Journal, 110: 3-4.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
Polar aspects of global change: an international symposium.
Environmental Conservation 27 (4): 366-368.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
Project SHEBA: drifting research station in the Arctic Ocean.
Polar Record, 34 (190): 249-250.

Brigham, L.W. 1998.
Recent environmental change in the Russian maritime Arctic.
In: Report on study of the Arctic change workshop held November 10-12, 1997, University of Washington.
Morison, J., and others (editors).
Seattle: University of Washington:
p. 52.

Brigham, L.W. 1999.
Arctic research.
In: The Arctic.
Swaney, D. (editor).
Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.
pp. 205-226.

Brigham, L.W. 1999.
Soviet-Russian polar icebreakers: changing fortunes.
US Naval Institute Proceedings, 125 (1): 89-90.

Brigham, L.W. 2000.
The Northern Sea Route, 1998.
Polar Record, 36 (196): 19-24.

Brigham, L.W. 2000.
Polar icebreakers at the end of the twentieth century.
Polar Record, 36 (198): 247-249.

Brigham, L.W. 2000.
The emerging international polar navigation code: bi-polar relevance?
In: Protecting the polar marine environment: law and policy for pollution prevention.
Vidas, D. (editor).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
pp. 244-262.

Brigham, L.W. 2001.
The Northern Sea Route, 1999-2000.
Polar Record, 37 (203): 329-336.

Brigham, L.W. (chairman). 1996.
International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP). Report of the international evaluation committee.
Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute.

Brigham, L.W., V.D. Grishchenko, and K. Kamesaki. 1999.
The natural environment, ice navigation and ship technology.
In: The natural and societal challenges of the Northern Sea Route.
Ostreng, W. (editor).
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
pp. 47-120.

Comiso, J.C., T.C. Grenfell, M.A. Lange, A.W. Lohanick, R.K. Moore, and Wadhams, P. 1992.
Microwave remote sensing of the Southern Ocean ice cover. In: Microwave remote sensing of sea ice.
Carsey, F.D.
Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
pp. 243-259.

Abstract:
Presents basic physical, radiative and backscatter properties of sea ice in Southern Ocean. Also evaluates techniques used to derive geophysical parameters, including ice extent and concentration from space-based systems.

Comiso, J.C., and P. Wadhams. 1992.
Active and passive microwave signatures and relationship to ice thickness.
In: Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, 19-21 November 1991, New Carrollton, Maryland.
Thorndike, A.S., Parkinson, C. and Rothrock, D.A.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Polar Science Center.
pp. B66-B75.

Abstract:
Should be possible to extract indirect link between microwave data and ice thickness, since data are observed to discriminate between some principal ice types and surfaces. Discusses some techniques that show potential.

Comiso, J.C., P. Wadhams, W.B. Krabill, R.N. Swift, J.P. Crawford, and W.B. Tucker. 1990.
Top/bottom multisensor remote sensing of Arctic sea ice.
Eos. Transactions, 71 (2): 131.

Abstract:
Studies, using near-simultaneous coverage by passive and active (SAR) microwave sensors, upward-looking and sidescan sonars, lidar profilometer, and infrared sensor, with two aircraft and submarine as platforms.

Comiso, Josefino C., P. Wadhams, W.B. Krabill, R.N. Swift, J.P. Crawford, and W.B. Tucker III. 1991.
Top/bottom multisensor remote sensing of Arctic sea ice.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 96 (C2): 2693-2709.

Abstract:
Top and bottom features studied in May 1987 using near-simultaneous observations by passive and active microwave sensors, upward-looking and sidescan sonars, lidar profilometer, and infrared sensor. Data from aircraft and submarine over 100 km track of central Arctic sea ice were registered and analyzed to evaluate characteristics of ice and use of each sensor in these studies. Discusses results of comparative and correlation analyses.

Cottier, F., H. Eicken, and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Linkages between salinity and brine channel distribution in young sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (C7): 15859-15871.

Abstract:
Studies bulk salinity in laboratory-grown sea ice to determine the extent of its spatial variability and whether it is associated with brine channel structures. Compares salinity data to images of ice structure, showing that large brine structures influence the presence of salinity. Redistribution of brine is attributed to an increase in porosity and pore connectivity. That in "warm" ice is more homogeneous and independent of brine channel structures.

Crane, D., and P. Wadhams. 1996.
Sea-ice motion in the Weddell Sea from drifting-buoy and AVHRR data.
Journal of Glaciology, 42 (141): 249-254.

Abstract:
Using AVHRR imagery collected at Palmer Station, and position and sensor data from an array of ice-mounted drifting buoys, data was processed to obtain floe and lead parameters which were compared with velocity-vectors, ice-field deformation and meteorological forcing. The vorticity was found to be well correlated with atmospheric pressure, with a time lag of less than 3 hours, implying almost instantaneous response of the ice cover to meteorological forcing.

Crocker, G.B., and P. Wadhams. 1988.
Observations of wind-generated waves in Antarctic fast ice.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18 (9): 1292-1299.

Abstract:
Observations made in McMurdo Sound over period of seven months during austral winter 1986, using rosette of three wire strainmeters. Data reveal, for first time, nature and magnitude of wind-induced flexural-gravity waves in Antarctic fast ice. Below threshold wind velocity, no resolvable waves are produced, but at wind speeds above threshold, wave energy increases significantly with increasing wind velocity.

Crocker, G.B., and P. Wadhams. 1989.
Breakup of Antarctic fast ice.
Cold Regions Science and Technology, 17 (1): 61-76.

Abstract:
Theoretical analysis of breakup in McMurdo Sound, incorporating observations and measurements of ice properties, thermodynamics, and wave dynamics during austral winter 1986.

Crocker, G.B., and P. Wadhams. 1989.
Modelling Antarctic fast-ice growth.
Journal of Glaciology, 35 (119): 3-8.

Abstract:
Existing thermodynamic ice-growth model is tested for ability to predict growth of fast ice in McMurdo Sound. Significant discrepancies between observed and predicted ice thicknesses were found to occur, mainly due to presence of sub-ice platelets and formation of snow-ice layer. Shows that simple modifications improve accuracy of thickness predictions and serve to highlight importance of these processes in Antarctic fast-ice environment. Although developed specifically for McMurdo Sound, it is hoped that formulation will be better suited to general problem of Antarctic fast-ice growth than those currently available.

Davis, N.R. 1996.
The Arctic wasteland: a perspective on Arctic pollution.
Polar Record, 32 (182): 237-248.

Davis, N. 2000.
Arctic oceanography, sea ice and climate.
In: The Arctic: environment, people, policy.
Nuttall, M., and T.V. Callaghan (editors).
Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.
pp. 97-115.

Davis, N.R., D.R. Crane, and P. Wadhams. 1995.
Seasonal variation of sea ice thickness distribution and volume transport rates in the Greenland Sea.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Climate Change in the Ocean, Copenhagen.
Brussels: European Commission.

Davis, N.R., D.R. Crane, and P. Wadhams. 1995.
Seasonal variation of sea ice thickness distribution and volume transport rates in the Greenland Sea.
In: Proceedings of the symposium on climate change in the ocean, Copenhagen, 6-10 Sept 1993.
Brussels: European Commission.
pp. 751-767.

Davis, N.R., and P. Wadhams. 1992.
Structure and distribution of Arctic pressure ridges.
Scott Polar Research Institute. Sea Ice Group. Technical Report, 92-2

Abstract:
Objects were to: use simultaneous upward-looking and sidescan sonar records of undeformed pressure ridges in geographically distinct regions to determine cross-sectional characteristics, spatial distribution and orientation; determine whether characteristics from large population of pressure ridges are consistent with published data from specific ridge investigations, within confines of distinct geographical areas, or entire Arctic pack; examine possible relationships between individual ridge parameters and local differences between geographical areas to gain insight into ridge-building mechanisms and theories of ice deformation.

Davis, N.R., and P. Wadhams. 1995.
A statistical analysis of Arctic pressure-ridge morphology.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 100 (C6): 10915-10925.

Abstract:
Upward-looking and side-scan sonar was used to identify individual pressure ridges, revealing absolute slopes and widths. Using a dataset of 729 ridges, it was found that ridge widths, slopes and drafts fit a log-normal distribution. An empirical relationship was found relating ridge slope to the ratio of half width to draft. The data was obtained from a 1987 cruise by a British submarine in the Arctic Ocean.

Doble, M., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Analysis of concurrent SAR images and submarine ice draft profiles in the Arctic Ocean.
In: Proceedings of the 15th port and ocean engineering conditions (POAC) conference.
Helsinki: [n.p.]
pp. 322-335.

Abstract:
Makes comparison between SAR images and submarine profiles of ice thickness north of Fram Strait. Decides more data are necessary to determine validity of fractal methods presented.

Drinkwater, M.R., P. Wadhams, D. Low, and X. Liu. 1998.
Interannual variability in Weddell Sea ice from ERS wind scatterometer: Proceedings of the Joint ESA-Eumetsat Workshop on emerging scatterometer applications - from research to operations, 5-7 October 1998.
Noordwijk: European Space Agency (ESA Special Publication SP-424).
pp. 119-123.

Abstract:
Investigates interannual variability in Weddell Sea ice and summer melt signatures 1992-97. Designs an algorithm to detect melting and the date of its commencement. Anomalous summer increases in sea-ice backscatter show the surface flooding of perennial ice floes and upward meteoric ice growth (snow-ice).

Eicken, H., M.A. Lange, H.-W. Hubberten, and P. Wadhams. 1994.
Characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice in the Weddell Sea and their contribution to the mass balance of sea ice.
Annales Geophysicae, 12(1) :80-93.

Abstract:
Based on measurements at over 11,000 points and augmented by snow-pit and ice-core studies, on four expeditions from 1986 to 1992. The main conclusion is that snow and meteoric ice contributes up to 16% of the total mass of sea ice in the Weddell Sea. Also discusses the role of snow cover in controlling primary productivity of sea-ice ecosystems and importance of snow cover in intensifying consequences of timing and temporal variation in ocean-ice-atmosphere system.

Haas, C., F. Cottier, L.H. Smedsrud, D. Thomas, U. Buschman, D. Dethleff, S. Gerland, V. Giannelli, J. Hoelemann, J-L. Tison, and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Multidisciplinary ice tank study shedding light on sea ice growth processes.
EOS, 80 (43): 507, 509, 513.

Hibler, W.D., and P. Wadhams. 1986.
MIZEX; a program for mesoscale air-ice-ocean interaction experiments in Arctic marginal ice zones.
Hanover, NH: US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. 88 pp.

Abstract:
Collection of articles arising from studies in the marginal ice zone of the Arctic.

Huddleston, M. 1996.
Modelling the sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic.
In: Oceanology international 96: the global ocean - towards operational oceanography.
New Malden, Surrey: Spearhead: 3.
pp. 257-270.

Interice Group (21 authors, including F. Cottier, R. Hall, P. Wadhams). 1998.
Ice-tank studies of physical and biological sea-ice processes:
In: Proceedings of the 14th International IAHR Ice Symposium, Potsdam, NY, July 1998.
New York: International Association for Hydraulic Research.

Jin, G., J.F. Lynch, R. Pawlowicz, and P. Wadhams. 1993.
Effects of sea ice cover on acoustic ray travel times, with applications to the Greenland Sea tomography experiment.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94 (2, Pt. 1): 1044-1057.

Abstract:
Estimates of this effect using generalized ray theory and including frequency dispersion. Implications of results on tomographic inversions for water-column oceanography are considered, particularly for 1988-89 Greenland Sea tomography experiments.

Jin, G., and P. Wadhams. 1989.
Travel time changes in a tomography array caused by a sea ice cover.
Progress in Oceanography, 22 (3), 249-275.

Abstract:
Models likely effects of sea-ice cover on acoustic transmission across array in Greenland Sea, where it will remain for about one year. Three types of icefield are considered: mixture of young, first- and multiyear ice from typical marginal ice zone with ridging; array of floes with no ridging, characteristic of extreme ice edge; and pancake--frazil mix growing on open sea. Concludes that measurable changes in travel time will occur, and that their value as means of monitoring ice thickness depends on accuracy with which sound velocities in sea ice are known. In addition scattering loss may be large enough to affect signal-to-noise ratio significantly.

Johannessen, O.M., and P. Wadhams. 1991.
Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and its interactions with ocean and atmosphere.
In: The ocean and the poles; European co-operation in ocean and polar research.
European Committee on Ocean and Polar Sciences, European Science Foundation, and Commission of the European Communities.
Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
pp. 29-33.

Abstract:
Discusses background, key scientific questions, wider scientific relevance, and links with on-going or planned international programmes. Makes plea for some organization to be created to coordinate bi-polar sea-ice programme with key scientific objectives discussed previously. Discusses present and future technological developments.

Johannessen, O.M., H. Sagen, H. Hobaek, K. Hasselmann, E. Meier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, P. Wadhams, A. Kaletzky, L. Bobylev, E. Evert, V. Troyan, K.A. Naugolnykh, and I. Esipov. 1999.
Acoustic monitoring of the ocean climate in the Arctic (AMOC).
In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on acoustic tomography and acoustic thermometry, Tokyo, 8 February 1999.

Johannessen, O.M., P. Wadhams, P. Lemke, and S. Sandven. 1994.
The Arctic Ocean Grand Challenge: a decadal programme 1996-2005.
Bergen: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre.

Johannessen, O.M., P. Wadhams, P. Lemke, and S. Sandven. 1996.
The Arctic Ocean grand challenge.
In: The oceans and the poles.
Hempel, G. (ed).
Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 171-180.

Jónsdóttir, I., and P. Wadhams, 2000.
Of ice and indices: Icelandic sea-ice indices for the years AD 1850 to 1999.
In: Sea ice in the climate system: the record of the North Atlantic Arctic [meeting], June 2-6, 2000.
Reykjavik: CAPE/ICAPP.
p. 35.

Abstract:
Discusses purpose of sea-ice indices and different ways of establishing them. Variety of ice off Iceland 1850-1999 is shown by indices. Points to need for collating sea-ice indices for North Atlantic and digitising information so flexible system based on Geographical Information System can be built.

Kaletsky, A., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Ice reflection and acoustic monitoring of the ocean climate (AMOC) in the Arctic.
In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on inverse problems in underwater acoustics, Heraklion, 18 May 1999.
New York: Springer.

Kerman, B., P. Wadhams, N. Davis, and J. Comiso. 1999.
Information equivalence between synthetic aperture radar imagery and the thickness of Arctic pack ice.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (C12): 29721-29731.

Abstract:
Outlines analysis based on a unique data set involving airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) flights over a track of a submarine simultaneously profiling ice thickness by upward-directed sonar. This textural and structural information may provide estimated statistics of Arctic ice thickness.

Keys, H.J.R., S.S. Jacobs, and L.W. Brigham. 1998.
Continued northward expansion of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica.
Annals of Glaciology, 27: 93-98.

Kottmeier, C., P. Wadhams, P., and 11 others. 1996.
Wind and ice motion statistics in the Weddell Sea.
Bremerhaven: Alfred Wegener Institut fur Polar- und Meeresforschung.

Abstract:
Compilation based on data from drifting buoys, vessels and analyses. Includes mean structure, variability, and spatial derivatives of ice motion; statistics on surface pressure, geostrophic winds and air temperatures; results of basin-scale study of ice motion in response to winds and currents; and atmospheric analyses of European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for periods when buoys were in operation.

Krishfield, R., S. Honjo, and P. Wadhams. 1989.
The drift-ice route of the Arctic environmental drifting buoy experiment (AEDB), Aug. 4, 1987 to April 15, 1988.
Eos. Transactions, 69 (44): 1277.
Abstract
Presents some details of journey along Transpolar Drift, north of Svalbard and Fram Strait, and then west of Jan Mayen and through Denmark Strait.>

Krishfield, R., S. Honjo, and P. Wadhams. 1990.
The drift-ice route of the Arctic Environmental Drifting Buoy experiment (AEDB), 4 Aug 1987 to 15 April 1988, (abstract only)
CRREL Monograph, 90-1: 190.

Abstract:
Presents some details of a journey along Transpolar Drift, north of Svalbard and Fram Strait, and then west of Jan Mayen and through the Denmark Strait.

Lange, M.A., S.F. Ackley, P. Wadhams, G.S. Dieckmann, and H. Eicken. 1989.
Development of sea ice in the Weddell Sea.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Ice Dynamics held at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 14-20 February 1988.
Cambridge: International Glaciological Society.
pp. 92-96.

Abstract:
Investigations in central and eastern Weddell Sea as part of Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986, which extended from July to December. Included continuous shipborne observations of sea-ice conditions and occasional helicopter reconnaissances, daily measurements of snow and ice thicknesses, and detailed analyses of sampled ice cores from each ice station. Textural investigations revealed dominance of frazil ice in central area and occurrence of platelet ice, together with frazil and congelation ice, in coastal region. Results show two major mechanisms for sea-ice generation in Antarctic: in central Weddell Sea, cycle of pancake-ice formation and its growth into consolidated floes seems to be dominant process of advancing sea-ice edge. In coastal waters, platelets form in underlying water column in front of ice-shelf edges. Thus, congelation, which is mainly controlled by atmospheric thermodynamic forcing, seems to be of less importance in central and south-eastern Weddell Sea than, for example, in Arctic Basin.

Lange, M.A., P. Schlosser, S.F. Ackley, P. Wadhams, and G.S. Dieckmann. 1990.
18O concentrations in sea ice of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica.
Journal of Glaciology, 36 (124): 315-323.

Abstract:
Presents and discusses data on ice texture, salinity, and delta18O obtained from identical sections of sea-ice cores during Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986, July-August, between 5°W and 7°E. No uniquely definable relationship between delta18O values and ice texture in a particular section; however, most snow ice and some frazil were found to have negative delta18O. Results indicate that snow cover contributes positively to sea-ice growth.

Lever, J., and P. Wadhams. 1986.
LIMEX - a Labrador ice margin experiment. (abstract only).
In: Proceedings of the Canadian East Coast Workshop on Sea Ice, January 7-9, 1986.
Symonds, G. and I.K. Peterson.
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Atlantic Oceanographic Laboratory.
p. 668.

Abstract:
Proposed to carry out integrated air-sea-ice investigation of southern ice edge of Labrador Sea in March 1987 in order to understand processes governing final stages of advance and first stages of retreat, when ice may threaten drilling operation in Hibernia area.

Lewis, E.L., P. Wadhams, and others (editors). 2000.
The freshwater budget of the Arctic Ocean.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Limbert, D.W.S., S.J. Morrison, C.B. Sear, P. Wadhams, and M.A. Rowe. 1989.
Pack-ice motion in the Weddell Sea in relation to weather systems and determination of a Weddell Sea sea-ice budget.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Ice Dynamics held at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 14-20 February 1988.
Cambridge: International Glaciological Society.
pp. 104-112.

Abstract:
As part of Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986, a satellite-transmitting buoy was placed on ice floe in southern Weddell Sea. Numerical surface-pressure analyses, which used buoy's measured values of air pressure and temperature, are used to assess impact of weather systems on pack-ice movement. Motion of buoy is shown to be related closely to position of circumpolar trough and to tracks of depressions crossing area. Tracks of this and other buoys deployed simultaneously are analyzed, together with known drifts of ice-bound vessels, to establish overall movement of sea ice in central and western Weddell Sea. Area of ice transported northward out of area is determined: 60% of winter cover is discharged and replaced by new ice emanating from coastal polynyas and from east. In summer, further 30% is discharged northward, leaving 40% cover, and, by implication, 30% loss by melting.

Marko, J.R., D.B. Fissel, P. Wadhams, P.M. Kelly, and R.D. Brown. 1994.
Iceberg severity off eastern North America: its relationship to sea ice vaariability and climate change.
Journal of Climate, 7 (9): 1335-1351.

Abstract:
Review of iceberg trajectory, deterioration, and sea-ice data shows a dominant role of sea ice over the variation in the number of icebergs passing south of 48°N.

Martin, T. and P. Wadhams. 1996.
Ice fluxes within the Greenland Sea and their variability.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): Vol. 1.
pp. 72-82.

Abstract:
Combined information from two different satellite sensors provides an insight into the ice-transport processes along the coast of Greenland. Additional in-situ sea-ice thickness measurements allow a conversion of the spatial transport into a sea-ice mass flux. The derived absolute values in this study are in a good agreement with other estimates proposed. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the mass flux allow further predictions of the meridional melting and freezing processes along the East Greenland Current.

Martin, T., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Sea-ice flux in the East Greenland Current.
Deep-Sea Research II, 46: 1063-1082.

Abstract:
Aims to derive seasonal variability of a large-scale sea-ice drift field and ice flux along the East Greenland Current. Satellite sensing data gave a realistic estimation of spatial distribution of ice-mass flux in 1993 and 1994. Results agree well with estimates proposed by other authors.

Meldrum, D., M. Doble, D. Mercer, O. Peppe, P. Wadhams, and J. Wilkinson. 2000.
A study of the winter Antarctic marginal ice zone using an innovative ice drifter.
In: Oceanology International 2000.
Brighton: Spearhead.

Murthy, T.K.S., J.G. Paren, W.M. Sackinger, and P. Wadhams. 1990.
Ice technology for polar operations. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Ice Technology, held at Downing College, Cambridge University, UK, during 18-20 September 1990.
Southampton: Computational Mechanics Publications. 426p.

Abstract:
Sections on: ice environment, vessels and structures in ice, ice operations and ice management, remote sensing of sea ice, ice forecasting and ice acoustics.

Murthy, T.K.S., W.M. Sackinger, and P. Wadhams. 1992.
Advances in Ice Technology; proceedings of the Third International Conference on Ice Technology (ITC 92) held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., during 11-13 August 1992.
Southampton: Computational Mechanics Publications., 365 pp.

Abstract:
Contains edited version of some papers presented at conference on sea-ice technology. Sections on: mathematical and computational modelling of ice; ice experiments and field tests; vessels and structures in ice; ice/ocean interaction; and ice operations and ice navigation.

Palmer, A.C., A.N. Schofield, T.S. Vinson, and P. Wadhams. 1985.
Centrifuge modelling of underwater permafrost and sea ice.
In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium, Texas, 1985.
Chung, J.S., V.J. Lunardini, S.K. Chakrabarti, Y.S. Wang, D.S. Sodhi, and K. Karal.
New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
pp. 65-69.

Abstract:
Reviews theory of centrifuge modelling. Two applications now under way: study of differential settlement under pipelines and study of formation of pressure ridges in sea ice.

Opheim, V., E. Jansen, L.G. Anderson, J. Backhaus, H. Drange, J-C Gascard, T. Johannessen, L. Toudal, P. Wadhams, and A.J. Watson. 1998.
European Subpolar Ocean Programme, Phase 2 (ESOP 2): the thermohaline circulation in the Greenland Sea.
In: 3rd European Marine Science and Technology Conference, Lisbon, 23-27 May 1998.
Brussels: Directorate-General XII, European Commission.
pp. 332-343.

Ostreng, W., and L.W. Brigham, and others. 1999.
The challenges of the Northern Sea Route interplay between natural and societal factors.
INSROP Working Paper, 167: 1425.

Rowe, M.A., C.B. Sear, S.J. Morrison, Wadhams, P., D.W.S. Limbert and D.R. Crane. 1989.
Periodic motions in Weddell Sea pack ice.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Ice Dynamics held at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 14-20 February 1988.
Cambridge: International Glaciological Society.
pp. 145-151.

Abstract:
Position data from satellite-tracked buoy deployed in southern Weddell Sea in austral summer 1986 are analyzed to determine important time-scales of variation of sea-ice motion in seasonal zone. Quality control and pre-processing of raw buoy data are discussed. Processed position data are subjected to time- and frequency-domain analyses, which highlight importance of diurnal and semi-diurnal periodicities in buoy motion. These preferred periodicities are associated with tidal forcing rather than wind forcing or inertial oscillations. Periodograms of longitudinal component of buoy motion indicate that power of 24 h tidal component drops dramatically around day 130 in 1986. Discusses possible causes. Concludes that internal resistance within sea-ice field may have increased at that time.

Sear, C.B., and P. Wadhams. 1992.
Statistical properties of Arctic sea ice morphology derived from sidescan sonar images.
Progress in Oceanography, 29, (2): 133-160.

Abstract:
Using transparent overlay technique, 140 km-long stretch of subice imagery from north of Greenland is classified into ice types: multi- and first-year ice, pressure ridges, apparently open (dark) and apparently closed (bright) leads, and randomly deformed ice. Pattern of ice types was tested statistically for associations between adjacent regions, distributions of lead widths, spacings and orientations, and distribution of ridge spacings and orientations.

Squire, V.A., J.P. Dugan, P. Wadhams, P.J. Rottier, and A.K. Liu. 1995.
Of ocean waves and sea ice.
Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics, 27: 115-168.

Abstract:
Reviews the effect of ocean waves on the marginal ice zone and within continuous sea ice. Extensive mathematical models are presented, and the use of SAR imagery to determine the motion of ice cover is illustrated using LIMEX '87 data from off Newfoundland. The use of ambient noise detection for determining MIZ dynamics is also postulated.

Toudall, L., K.Q. Hansen, H. Valeur, P. Wadhams, E. Aldworth, and J.C. Comiso. 1996.
Mapping of ice in the Odden by satellite and airborne remote sensing.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 2.
pp. 306-330.

Abstract:
Gives detailed analysis of ice conditions in Odden area of Greenland Sea using data from active and passive microwave sensors, supplemented by airborne data for 1992-93 winter season. Synthetic aperture radar on ERS-1 satellite gives a finest resolution of 25 m per pixel.

Toudall, L., K.Q. Hansen, H. Valeur, P. Wadhams, E. Aldworth, and J.C. Comiso. 1999.
Mapping of ice in the Odden by satellite and airborne remote sensing.
Deep-Sea Research II, 46: 1255-1274.

Toudal, L., D. Low, H. Valeur and P. Wadhams. 1997.
Satellite observations of the Odden ice cover during the winter of 1995-1996. [n.p.]: European Subpolar Ocean Programme.

Abstract:
Quantifies ice development in the Greenland Sea, December 1995-June 1996, giving an overview of ice conditions, ice drift and a characterisation of ice types as the Odden ice tongue appeared during 1996.

Tuhkuri, J., M. Lensu, K. Riska, S. Sandven, F. Thorkildsen, J. Haapala, M. Leppäranta, M. Doble, Y. Aksenov, P. Wadhams, and B. Erlingsson. 1998.
Local ice cover deformation and mesoscale ice dynamics, 'Ice State'.
In: 3rd European Marine Science and Technology Conference, Lisbon, 23-27 May 1998. Brussels: Directorate-General XII, European Commission.
pp. 316-328.

Uscinski, B.J., and P. Wadhams. 1996.
Ice-ocean acoustic energy transfer: ambient noise in the ice-edge region.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 1.
pp. 88-100.

Abstract:
The ambient noise produced by large areas of ice floes, such as the Odden and the marginal ice zone, was recorded and analysed. A model is constructed based on the collision, compression and shearing of floes driven by ocean swell. This model allows the level and variance of the ambient noise to be predicted provided the conditions of the ice and the sea state are known. The frequency spectrum of the ambient noise in the range 100 Hz to 100 kHz is explained in terms of acoustic propagation and absorption by sea water. The probability distribution of ambient noise intensity, obtained from a statistical analysis of collision frequencies, is a form of K distribution and agrees with observations.

Uscinski, B.J., and P. Wadhams. 1999.
Ice-ocean acoustic energy transfer: ambient noise in the ice-edge region.
Deep-Sea Research II, 46: 1319-1334.

Abstract:
Ambient noise produced by large areas of ice floes, such as in the Odden and marginal ice zone, was recorded and analysed. A model based on collision, compression and shearing of floes driven by ocean swell was constructed, allowing prediction of level and variance of ambient noise.

Vinje, T., N. Nordlund, S. Østerhuis, and P. Wadhams. 1996.
The ice flux in Fram Strait.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 1.
pp. 47-58.

Wadhams, P. 1985.
Predictions of extreme keel depths from submarine sonar data.
In: Workshop on Ice Scouring, 15-19 February 1982.
Pilkington, R.
Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada. Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research.
pp. 32-47.

Abstract:
The fundamental problem in estimation of return periods for deep keels, at a point, is that of predicting extreme values from time series or spatial profile of limited extent. Examines three techniques of prediction, comparing performances using published data set, and problem of predicting extreme keel depths along the line, i.e. probability that pipeline route will suffer scoring by keel during given interval. Proposes two ways of dealing with problem and considers example of how to predict pipeline burial depth using these statistics.

Wadhams, P. 1986.
The ice cover.
In: The Nordic seas.
Hurdle, B.G.
New York: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 20-86.

Abstract:
Reviews characteristics and processes of ice cover in Norwegian, Greenland and western Barents seas and in Icelandic waters. Includes landfast ice, transition zone, moving pack ice, and marginal ice zone.

Wadhams, P. 1986.
Observations of iceberg sizes and frequencies in the South Atlantic Ocean in winter.
Iceberg Research, 13: 1-9.

Abstract:
Preliminary report on radar and visual observations made during first transect by F.S. Polarstern through Antarctic zone during July 1986. Capability of standard marine radar to detect icebergs of particular interest.

Wadhams, P. 1986.
The seasonal ice zone.
In: The geophysics of sea ice.
Untersteiner, N.
New York: Plenum Press.
pp. 825-991.

Abstract:
Defines seasonal ice zone as area between minimum and maximum seasonal ice limits plus region of ice margin that is significantly affected by ice-ocean boundary. Considers three main divisions of these types of ice: fast ice, shear zone, and marginal ice zone, including their distribution in Arctic and Antarctic.

Wadhams, P. 1987.
Sea ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean.
In: Pôle Nord 1983. Histoire de sa conquête et problèmes contemporains de navigation maritime et aérienne. Actes du 10e Colloque International du Centre d'Études Arctiques, Paris, CNRS, 7-10 novembre 1983.
Malaurie, J., and S. Devers.
Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
pp. 83-94.

Abstract:
Summarizes current knowledge of properties of Arctic sea ice, including drift, seasonal limits, structure, marginal ice zone, leads and polynyas, and ice islands (i.e. Arctic tabular icebergs).

Wadhams, P. 1988.
The underside of Arctic sea ice imaged by sonar.
Nature, 333 (6169): 161-164.

Abstract:
Presents first extensive set of imagery of underside of Arctic sea ice. Describes distinct difference between appearance of first-year and multi-year ice, and discusses origins of these differing topographies. This clear discrimination enables sidescan sonar to be used for validating airborne passive microwave data.

Wadhams, P. 1988.
Winter observations of iceberg frequencies and sizes in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (C4): 3583-3590.

Abstract:
Results of observations made in midwinter 1986 show that, in heavy sea, icebergs have to be >115 m in diameter to be detected and that detectability falls off severely for all bergs at ranges exceeding 15 km. Most bergs had diameters < 1 km, with preferred size of 400 to 500 m. High density of icebergs in latitudes 53 to 56°S at longitude 19 to 30°W contrasted with virtual absence of bergs in same latitude band at longitude 1 to 9°E.

Wadhams, P. 1989.
Sea-ice thickness distribution in the Trans Polar Drift Stream.
In: Oceanography and biology of Arctic seas. Selected papers from the ICES Symposium on Marine Sciences of the Arctic and Subarctic Regions held in Santander, 28-30 September 1987.
Hempel, G.
[Copenhagen]: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
pp. 59-65.

Abstract:
During June-July 1985, ice-thickness data from upward-looking sonar were obtained in Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, and northward into Eurasian Basin. Preliminary analysis shows that mean ice thickness in test area of Trans Polar Drift Stream is almost identical to values found during late winter 1979 and autumn 1976. Data show radical change in ice properties between marginal ice zone of Fram Strait and central Arctic Basin, with more pressure ridges and fewer leads in interior zone.

Wadhams, P. 1989.
Environmental problems of Arctic oil and gas development.
Petroleum Review, 43 (513): 524, 526.

Abstract:
Outlines problems caused by presence of sea ice and icebergs. Discusses transport of oil by pipeline and by tanker, and possibility of pollution due to oil spills and blowouts. Includes map.

Wadhams, P. 1989.
The underside of Arctic sea ice imaged by sidescan sonar (abstract only)
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Ice Dynamics held at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 14-20 February 1988.
Cambridge: International Glaciological Society.
p. 217.
Note: Published in full in Nature, 1988, Vol. 333, No. 6169, p. 161-164, [see above].

Wadhams, P. 1990.
Evidence for thinning of the Arctic ice cover north of Greenland.
Nature, 345 (6278): 795-797.

Abstract:
Evidence of significant decrease in mean ice thickness in 1987 relative to that found in same area in 1976, in zone extending >400 km. Amounts to loss of at least 15% over area of 300,000 km2. Nature of ice-thickness distributions suggests that thinning is primarily associated with presence of larger fraction of young and first-year sea ice, due to wind-driven divergence in ice cover during months preceding observations. This large fluctuation in region previously believed to possess consistently high ice thicknesses illustrates importance of monitoring ice thickness more systematically to determine whether such fluctuations are normal.

Wadhams, P. 1990.
Icebergs at low southern latitudes in 1894.
Iceberg Research, 15: 35-36.

Wadhams, P. 1990.
Ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean.
In: Ice technology for polar operations. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Ice Technology, held at Downing College, Cambridge University, UK, during 18-20 September 1990.
Murthy, T.K.S., J.G. Paren, W.M. Sackinger, and P. Wadhams. 1992.
Southampton: Computational Mechanics Publications.
pp. 3-20.

Abstract:
Reviews existing state of knowledge, including geographical distribution of mean thicknesses, evidence for changes in mean thickness over time, and statistical functions which describe probability density of ice thickness, distribution of pressure ridge depths and spacings, distribution of lead widths and spacings, and roughness properties of ice surface.

Wadhams, P. 1990.
The resource potential of Antarctic icebergs.
Antarctic Research Series, 51: 203-215.

Abstract:
Discusses possible use of icebergs as source of water and electrical power, reviewing development of the idea of iceberg utilisation and physical properties of icebergs.

Wadhams, P. 1991.
Atmospheric-ice-ocean interactions in the Antarctic.
In: Antarctica and global climatic change.
Harris, Colin M. and B. Stonehouse.
London: Belhaven Press, in association with the Scott Polar Research Institute.
pp. 65-81.

Abstract:
Describes some characterics of Antarctic sea ice and factors governing its development, compares Arctic and Antarctic sea ice (pancake--frazil, first- and multi-year ice, snow loading, pressure ridging, coastal polynyas) and discusses its significance in climate modelling.

Wadhams, P. 1991.
Concurrent remote sensing of Arctic sea ice from submarine and aircraft.
International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12, (9): 1829-1840.

Abstract:
Carried out in May 1987. Submarine equipped with sidescan and upward-looking sonar; two aircraft equipped with passive microwave, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), laser profilometer and infrared radiometer. Possible to find relationships between ice type, ice morphology and thickness, SAR backscatter and microwave brightness temperatures. Side-scan sonar able to identify ice type through differences in topography. Over heavily ridged area of multiyear ice, strong positive correlation exists between SAR backscatter and ice draft. SAR and passive microwave show high contrast, respectively, between open water and multi-year ice, and between open water and first-year ice.

Wadhams, P. 1991.
Variations in sea ice thickness in the polar regions.
In: International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change: proceedings of a Conference held June 11-15, 1990 at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Weller, G.E., C.L. Wilson, and B.A.B. Severin.
Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, Geophysical Institute / Centre for Global Change and Arctic System Research.
pp. 4-13.

Abstract:
Discusses evidence for variations in thickness of sea ice in Arctic and Southern oceans due to climate warming. So far, it is inconclusive.

Wadhams, P. 1992.
Sea ice thickness distribution in the Greenland Sea and Eurasian Basin, May 1987.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (C4): 5331-5348.

Abstract:
Presents results of statistical analysis of upward sonar data from 3400-km track (the first cruise in which data have been obtained over continuous latitude range from pole to 72°N in European sector of Arctic). North of Fram Strait, between 82 and 80°N, there is remarkable consistency between mean ice drafts in 1987 and in three earlier cruises, whereas, between Greenland and North Pole, there was significant thinning in 1987 relative to 1976. Further specific conclusions are made.

Wadhams, P. 1992.
Workshop on Wave-Ice Interaction
Eos. Transactions, 73 (35): 375, 378.

Abstract:
Report of workshop which took place in Cambridge, 16-18 December 1991. Three major themes: propagation of ocean waves in pack ice, propagation of ocean waves in continuous sea ice, and remote-sensing techniques for observing waves in ice (particularly synthetic aperture radar).

Wadhams, P. 1992.
Ice thickness observations from British submarines.
In: Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, 19-21 November 1991, New Carrollton, Maryland.
A.S. Thorndike, C. Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Polar Science Center.
pp. B19-B21.

Abstract:
Data collected since 1971, mainly from Eurasian sector of Arctic Basin, and from Fram Strait and Greenland Sea. Reviews advantages and disadvantages of submarine sonar surveys.

Wadhams, P. 1993.
Active and passive microwave imagery of the Odden ice tongue in the Greenland Sea compared with field observations.
Eos. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 74, (43, supplement): 323

Abstract:
Observations of this sea-ice feature in winter--spring 1993 showed that it consisted mainly of pancake ice, diameter 1 to 2 m, with thicknesses of larger specimens about 40 cm and salinities 2 to 4%.

Wadhams, P. 1993.
Global warming: a polar approach.
In: IAHR 92; 11th International Symposium on Ice, Banff, Alberta, Canada, June 15-19, 1992. Proceedings.
Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta, Department of Civil Engineering.
pp. 23-40.

Abstract:
Time-dependent general circulation models agree that greenhouse warming will be most rapid in high northern latitudes. This implies that Arctic sea ice and snow cover should be showing significant response to global warming over next few decades. In this review, factors governing thickness and extent of sea ice are described, and attempt is made to estimate nature of response to climatic warming qualitatively.

Wadhams, P. 1994.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP).
In: Oceanology International '94. Vol. 1.
Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey: Spearhead.

Abstract:
Work began on ESOP in July 1993, with 22 participating investigators in seven countries in the European Union. The principal objective is the role of sea ice in the energetics of the Greenland Sea.

Wadhams, P. 1994.
Remote sensing of snow and ice and its relevance to climate change processes.
In: Remote sensing and global climate change. Vol. I 24.
Vaughan, R.A., and A.P. Cracknell (eds).
Berlin: Springer-Verlag (NATO ASI Series 1).
pp. 305-339.

Abstract:
An excellent introductory text on both remote sensing of ice/snow and the geophysics of ice and snow. It includes sections on ice crystal structure, glaciers, sea ice and icebergs. Considering global warming it discusses the contribution of melting ice to sea level rise, the possible retreat and/or thinning of sea ice, and decreases in snow cover.

Wadhams, P. 1994.
Sea ice thickness changes and their relation to climate.
In: The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment.
Johannessen, O.M., R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland (eds).
Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union (Geophysical Monograph 85).
pp. 337-361.

Wadhams, P. 1994.
Sea-ice research. Sea-ice physics.
Berichte zur Polarforschung / Reports on Polar Research, 134 :71-92.

Abstract:
A research programme was designed to study five major aspects of the properties and behaviour of sea ice: response to passage of flexural gravity waves generated by various means; effect of rapid refreezing of leads upon local stability in lead; properties of overlying snow and upper part of ice cover that determine response to active microwaves, especially ERS-1 SAR; acoustic properties of ice; and nature and properties of ice in Odden ice tongue.

Wadhams, P. 1995.
Arctic sea ice extent and thickness.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 352 (1699), 301-319.

Abstract:
Reviews current knowledge of these topics and examines whether measurements to date provide evidence for climatic change. Paper presented at a Discussion Meeting on Arctic and Environmental Change held at the Royal Society, London, 12-13 October, 1994.

Wadhams, P. 1995.
Castles of ice.
In: Polar regions: the illustrated history of the Earth.
Ives, J.D., and D.E. Sugden (eds).
Surrey Hills, NSW: RD Press.
pp. 26-27.

Wadhams, P. 1995.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP): investigations of the role of sea ice in Greenland Sea convection.
In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Environmental Research in the Arctic, July 1995. Tokyo: NIPR.

Abstract:
Overview of this important international programme, with description of its scope, objectives and results to date.

Wadhams, P. 1995.
Physical characteristics of Antarctic sea ice.
In: Ciências Espacias e da Atmosfera na Antártica.
Medrano-B., R.A., and E.B. Pereira (eds).
Sao Paulo, Brazil: Transtec Editorial.
pp. 19-44.

Wadhams, P. 1996.
The development of the Odden ice tongue in the Greenland Sea during winter 1993 from remote sensing and field observations.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C8) :18213-18235

Abstract:
The Odden was studied by a succession of cruises during the winter of 1993 using ships, aircraft with SSM/I and ERS 1 SAR remote sensing. This data was used to determine the ice extent and thickness throughout the winter, and estimate the salt flux (380 million tonnes) into the Greenland Sea from brine release from frazil-pancake ice. The cruises formed part of the European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP).

Wadhams, P. 1996.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP): investigations of the role of sea ice in Greenland Sea convection.
National Institute of Polar Research. Memoirs. Special Issue, 51 :277-297.

Abstract:
Overview of this important international programme, with description of its scope, objectives and results to date.

Wadhams, P. 1996.
Arctic ocean science: challenge for technology.
In: The oceans and the poles.
Hempel, G. (ed).
Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 193-202.

Wadhams. P. 1996.
Executive summary.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 1.
pp. 1-46.

Abstract:
The executive summary to this two-volume work provides a historical introduction to previous work in several disciplines in the Greenland Sea; the purpose and scope of the European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP); the chronology of field activities within the Programme; and a summary of its achievements with conclusions. A comprehensive list of references is included.

Wadhams, P. 1997.
Ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean: the statistical reliability of experimental data.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (C13): 27951-27959.

Abstract:
Presents examination of statistical reliability of ice thickness distributions derived from submarine sonar data sets of finite length, focusing on standard error EpsilonH(L) in mean ice drift H derived from record of length L km.

Wadhams, P. 1997.
Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness - statistical significance and its relationship to heat flux.
In: Operational oceanography: the challenge for European co-operation.
Stel, J.H., H.W.A. Behrens, J.C. Borst, L.J. Droppert, and J.P. Van der Meulen (editors).
Amsterdam: Elsevier (Oceanography Series 62).
pp. 368-384.

Wadhams, P. 1998.
Sea ice morphology.
In: Physics of ice-covered seas.
Leppäranta, M (editor).
Helsinki: University of Helsinki Press: Vol I.
pp. 231-288.

Abstract:
Lecture notes from a summer school in Savonlinna, Finland, 6-17 June 1994. Reviews statistical properties of sea-ice morphology and sea-ice thickness variability in the Arctic and Antarctic, and examines to what extent measurements made to date provide evidence for impact of climate change.

Wadhams, P. 1998.
Ice thickness changes in the Arctic Ocean.
In: Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on Okhotsk Sea and sea ice, and the Ice scour and Arctic marine pipelines workshop, Mombetsu, 1-5 February 1998. Abstracts.
Mombetsu: Okhotsk Sea and Cold Ocean Research Association.
pp. 1-6.

Wadhams, P. 1999.
The Odden ice tongue and Greenland Sea convection.
Weather, 54 (3): 83-84, 91-98.

Abstract:
Discusses the role of sea ice as source of fresh water influx, via the Fram Strait into the Greenland Sea and local ice growth in winter as factor in the convection process. Describes the aims and achievements of the European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP). Emphasises the importance of the Odden ice tongue's connection to global thermohaline circulation and climate change.

Wadhams, P. 1999.
Characterisation of ice cover morphology.
In: Local ice cover Deformation and mesoscale ice dynamics. Part 2: Synthesis report.
Riska, K., and J. Tuhkuri (editors).
Helsinki: Helsinki University Technology, Ship Laboratory.
pp. 19-35.

Wadhams, P. 2000.
Ice in the ocean.
Reading, Australia: Gordon and Breach Science Publ., 351p.

Abstract:
Detailed introduction to sea ice and icebergs and their role in ocean systems, together with physics of sea-ice processes and their influence on climate.

Wadhams, P. 2001.
New developments in Arctic ice regional climatology and characteristics.
In: ICETECH 2000: Sixth International Conference on ships and marine structures in cold regions, 12-14 September 2000, St Petersburg, Russia: Proceedings and Annex.
Polonsky, B.P. (editor).
St Petersburg: Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute. pp. 12-24.

Abstract:
Deals with importance of thickness distribution of sea ice and pressure ridging. Reviews knowledge of ice thickness probability density function, physical processes accounting for its shape and variability and evidence of recent change in its characteristics.

Wadhams, P. 2001.
The role of frazil and pancake ice in polynyas (abstract only).
In: International Polynya Symposium 2001: Polynyas in changing polar seas. Abstracts.
Deming, J.
Quebec, Canada: Arctic Ocean Science Board.
p. 19.

Wadhams, P. 2001.
Sea ice thinning in the Nansen Basin and Greenland Sea.
In: Second Wadati Conference on Global Change and the Polar Climate, March 7-9, 2001, Epochal Tsukuba, International Congress Center, Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Fairbanks: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
pp. 14-17.

Abstract:
Extended abstract showing mean thickness of ice over latitude range 81-90° N was reduced by 43% between 1976 and 1996, with significant decline in ridging. Raises paradoxes concerned with ocean heat flux, and apparent thinning during recent decades occurring prior to 1990, though biggest changes in Arctic environmental conditions occurred after 1990.

Wadhams, P. 2002.
Memories of MIZEX.
In: Proceedings of the 4th International POLLICHIA Symposium, 24-26 June 2001: Perspectives of Modern Polar Research and 175th Anniversary of Georg von Neumayer.
Kremb, K. & Kremb, C.
Bad Durkheim, Germany: POLLICHIA-Museum.
pp. 35-42.

Abstract:
Summaries in German and French. Describes development and achievements of Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) in the 1980s, assessing its impact on progress of Arctic marine science, its role in stimulating US-European cooperation, and appreciating role of Leonard Johnson, manager of Office of Naval Research Arctic Program.

Wadhams, P., E.M. Aldworth, and F. Parmiggiani. 1993.
Use of ERS-1 SAR to measure ice flux in the East Greenland Current.
In: Proceedings of the First ERS-1 Symposium; Space at the Service of our Environment; 4-6 November 1992, Cannes, France.
Kaldeich, B.
Paris: European Space Agency.
pp. 283-287

Abstract:
In order to perform the proposed experiment for measuring ice flux across 75°N, SAR image pairs, 3 days apart, with centre latitude around 75°N, must be used. Quick check of SAR images made available so far by ESA shows that only three (20 January, 1 and 16 February) give information on this area, but they are too many days apart to be used for computing ice-drift velocity; i.e. because of average ice velocity in January--February period, ice elements in first SAR image pair cannot be seen in second one if this is obtained more than 3 days after the first. This condition leads to stringent requirements about image availibility from ESA.

Wadhams, Peter, and 5 others. 1992.
Relationship between sea ice freeboard and draft in the Arctic Basin and implications for ice thickness monitoring.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (C12): 20,325-20,334

Abstract:
Confirms earlier finding that probability density function (pdf) of ice freeboard in Arctic Ocean can be converted to pdf of ice draft by applying simple coordinate transformation based on measured mean draft and mean elevation. Examines nature of transformation over entire length of track during May 1987 experiment for which coincident data of sufficient quality were obtained (300 km). Examines question of how density ratio might be expected to vary in time and space over Arctic Ocean, and hence whether transformation of freeboard pdf to draft pdf is sufficiently reliable to form basis of technique for monitoring synoptic ice thickness of Arctic by airborne laser.

Wadhams, P., and 7 others. 1994.
Sea ice physics cruise report, FS 'Polarstern' cruise ARK IX/1.
Berichte zur Polarforschung, 134: 71-92.

Wadhams, P., and M.P. Casarini. 1994.
Signs of life.
Geographical Magazine, 66 (4): 26-27.

Wadhams, P., and M.P. Casarini. 1995.
The ocean drilling program in Fram Strait: a case study of the use of ice charts to predict the probability of ice-free conditions.
In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Hague: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers.
pp. 529-536.

Wadhams, P., and M.P. Casarini. 1996.
Statistical study of sea-ice variability at the planned locations of Leg 151 drilling sites.
Ocean Drilling Program. Proceedings. Scientific Results, 151: 25-36.

Wadhams, P., and J.C. Comiso. 1992.
Inferring ice thickness distribution from airborne laser profiling.
In: Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, 19-21 November 1991, New Carrollton, Maryland.
Thorndike, A.S., Parkinson, C. and Rothrock, D.A.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory, Polar Science Center.
pp. B43-B51.

Abstract:
Outlines recent work which led to study of how ratio of mean draft of pressure ridges to mean freeboard might vary with time of year and location. Simple model for seasonal variation of this ratio was developed, based on best available data on seasonal snow thickness, mean density of snow, and mean density of ice and near-surface water displaced by ice cover. Results show that snow load is critical parameter and best time to carry out surveys is between November and end of April. Further recommendations for continued surveying are made, based on results of model.

Wadhams, P., and J.C. Comiso. 1992.
The ice thickness distribution inferred using remote sensing techniques.
In: Microwave remote sensing of sea ice.
Carsey, F.D.
Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
pp. 375-383.

Abstract:
Discusses current state of submarine sonar profiling, carried out simultaneously with airborne operations, involving passive and active microwave and laser profiling systems, and suggests ways in which reliable technique of ice-thickness inference can be developed from these surface--bottom relationships.

Wadhams, P., and J.C. Comiso. 1999.
Two modes of appearance of the Odden ice tongue in the Greenland Sea.
Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (16): 2497-2500.

Abstract:
Identifies two types of Odden ice, thermodynamic Odden composed mostly of frazil and pancake ice, with local high salt fluxes which initiate convection, and rarer advective Odden occurring early in the year composed of moderate-sized floes from the East Greenland Current, with local melt freshening and stabilizing of surface water. Reviews the history of Oddens 1978-97. Advective Odden occurred only in 1987 and 1996.

Wadhams, P., J.C. Comiso, E. Prussen, S. Wells, M. Brandon, E. Aldworth, T. Viehoff, R. Allegrino, and D.R. Crane. 1996.
The development of the Odden ice tongue in the Greenland Sea during winter 1993 from remote sensing and field observations.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 101 (C8): 18213-18235.

Wadhams, P., and D.R. Crane. 1991.
SPRI participation in the Winter Weddell Gyre Study 1989.
Polar Record, 27 (160): 29-38.

Abstract:
Involvement of the Scott Polar Research Institute in this study centred on sea-ice research: measuring ice thickness; studying under-ice topography with upward-looking sidescan sonar; investigating acceleration, tilt and strain of ice; deploying Argos buoys; air photography; iceberg tracking; and acoustic experiments.

Wadhams, P., and N.R. Davis. 1997.
Climate-related research in the UK on Antarctic sea ice.
Globe, 36 :11-13.

Abstract:
An overview of various research programmes, including the nature and properties of sea-ice; ice dynamics measurements; modelling studies; and remote sensing.

Wadhams, P., and N.R. Davis. 2000.
Further evidence of ice thinning in the Arctic Ocean.
Geophysical Research Letters, 27 (24): 3973-3975.

Abstract:
Compares sea-ice thickness profile from Eurasian basin of Arctic Ocean, 1996 with similar profile, 1976. Observes loss of mean ice draft of 43%, in agreement with other estimates.

Wadhams, P., and N.R. Davis. 2001.
Arctic sea-ice morphology characteristics in Summer 1996.
Annals of Glaciology, 33 :165-170.

Abstract:
Compares sea-ice thickness profile in September 1996 from Greenland Sea and Eurasian Basin with that in October 1976, showing loss of ice thickness of 43%. There is significant decline in occurrence of pressure ridges.

Wadhams, P, and T. Davy. 1986.
On the spacing and draft distributions for pressure ridge keels.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 91 (C9): 10,697-10,708.

Abstract:
Negative exponential distribution considered as description of pressure ridge spacings and drafts. Gave excellent fit for latter. Spacing distribution found to be fitted better by three-parameter lognormal distribution, of which third parameter (threshold) is dependent on beam width of sonar used to collect ice-bottom profile.

Wadhams, P., J.A. Dowdeswell, and A.N. Schofield (eds). 1995.
The Arctic and environmental change.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 352 (1699): 199-385.

Wadhams, P., J.-C. Gascard, and L. Miller (editors). 1999.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme: ESOP. Sea ice - ocean interactions, deep convection and carbon cycling in the Greenland Sea.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 46 (6-7): 1011-1530.

Wadhams, P., and B. Holt. 1991.
Waves in frazil and pancake ice and their detection in Seasat synthetic aperture radar imagery.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 96 (C5): 8835-8852.

Abstract:
Theoretical model of waves propagating into frazil and pancake ice was developed and compared with measurements of wavelength and direction derived from Seasat SAR imagery obtained from Chukchi Sea in October 1978. Theoretical prediction of frequency limit for wave propagation in frazil ice also served to explain why frazil ice appears dark in SAR imagery, since there is little or no energy present at Bragg wavelength. If theory is valid, means of inferring sea-ice thickness from SAR data is provided; some applications are mentioned.

Wadhams, Peter, M.A. Lange, and S.F. Ackley.
The ice thickness distribution across the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic ocean in midwinter.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C13): 14,535-14,552.

Abstract:
First report on results of programme to measure sea-ice thickness distribution and its variation with latitude, as part of Winter Weddell Sea Project, July-September 1986, in South Atlantic Ocean.

Wadhams, P., and S. Martin. 1990.
Processes determining the bottom topography of multiyear Arctic sea ice.
CRREL Monograph, 90-1: 136-141.

Abstract:
Discusses mechanism of formation of under-ice structures, first observed by submarine in 1987 and later by coring from surface.

Wadhams, P., L. Miller, and J.-C. Gascard. 1999.
The European Subpolar Ocean Programme: an introduction.
Deep-Sea Research II 46: 1011-1021.

Abstract:
Describes the development of the European Subpolar Ocean Programme (ESOP) to study sea ice-ocean interactions in the Greenland Sea system. Links uptake and vertical flux of carbon with atmospheric forcing, sea ice and convection processes.

Wadhams, P., and K. Nichols (editors). 1999.
Rapid climate change and the northern high latitude oceans: a joint research activity initiated by Norway and UK.
Swindon: NERC and Oslo: Norges forskningsrad.

Wadhams, P., and N. Ono. 1997.
Downstream evolution of ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean - evidence for melting?
In: Okhotsk Sea and Cold Ocean Research Association. Proceedings of the twelfth international symposium on Okhotsk Sea and sea ice abstracts. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University. pp. 179-186.

Abstract:
Examines statistical properties of evolution of mean thickness of ice cover, following meridional submarine sonar profile from North Pole to Fram Strait, and then to 72° N.

Wadhams, P., F.E. Parmiggiani, and G. de Carolis. 1998.
The use of SAR to map the thickness of frazil-pancake icefields from ocean wave dispersion.
Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute, Sea Ice Group. Report.

Abstract:
Discusses the mapping of sea-ice thickness using ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images together with monitoring of change in dispersion of ocean waves as they penetrate pancake ice. Reports results from two experiments, in the Odden ice tongue in 1993 and 1997, which involved surface gound truthing measurements from ships and wave buoys, and from the outer ice-edge zone of the Weddell Sea in July 1997, and polynya in the Ross Sea.

Wadhams, P., F.E. Parmiggiani, and G. de Carolis. 2002.
The use of SAR to measure ocean wave dispersion in frazil-pancake icefields.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32(6) : 1721-1746.

Abstract:
Considers using changes in dispersion of ocean waves as they penetrate pancake ice to link into finding thickness of ice. Describes analysis technique for retrieving wave spectrum from SAR spectrum, and discusses cross-spectral technique and other wave theories. Experiments in Odden ice tongue, 1993 and 1997, gave surface truth measurements. Reports imagery from ice-edge of Weddell Sea, July 1997. Basic theory, when developed further, may prove SAR as useful tool in study of frazil-pancake sea-ice cover, especially at times when surface observations are difficult. Radarsat in image mode will promote this facility.

Wadhams, P., F.E. Parmiggiani, G. de Carolis, and M. Tadross. 1999.
Mapping the thickness of pancake ice using ocean wave dispersion in SAR imagery.
In: The oceanography of the Ross Sea, Antarctica.
Spezie, G., and G.M.R. Manzella (editors).
Milan: Springer-Verlag.
pp. 17-34.

Abstract:
Describes a technique using SAR data and wave theory to analyse ice thickness in Arctic seas, and the initial stages of its application to Antarctic pancake ice. Discusses wave propagation in ice; imaging of waves by SAR; and detection of changes in wave dispersion.

Wadhams, P., F.E. Parmiggiani, and M. Tadross. 1995.
Wave spectra of SAR imagery of the Odden ice tongue.
In: Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Firenze, 10-14 July 1995.
Stein, T. (ed).
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE: Vol. I.
pp. 630-637.

Wadhams, P., C.B. Sear, D.R. Crane, M.R. Rowe, S.J. Morrison, and D.W.S. Limbert. 1989.
Basin-scale ice motion and deformation in the Weddell Sea during winter.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Ice Dynamics held at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 14-20 February 1988.
Cambridge: International Glaciological Society.
pp. 178-186.

Abstract:
Ice motion in Weddell Sea is examined for period from 19 August to 12 October 1986, by means of four satellite-tracked drifting buoys deployed during Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986. Two buoys were launched in south-east and north-west area of sea and two were deployed in Maud Rise area. Buoys operated together for 44 d, comprising basin-scale quadrilateral from which differential kinematic parameters of divergence, vorticity, shear, and stretch were extracted, as well as large-scale pattern of motion. It was found that most deformable episodes were associated with atmospheric forcing events.

Wadhams, P., V.A. Squire, J.A. Ewing, and R.W. Pascal. 1985.
Directional wave spectra measured near ice edges.
In: POAC 85; the 8th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, Narssarssuaq, Greenland, September 7-14, 1985; proceedings.
Hørsholm: Danish Hydraulic Institute.
pp. 326-338.

Abstract:
Experiments conducted in northern Greenland Sea during July 1984. Aim was to extend one-dimensional spectral measurements made earlier so as to study in detail processes of reflection and refraction. Relevant to design of offshore structures in regions where both pack ice and waves are present.

Wadhams, P., V.A. Squire, J.A. Ewing, and R.W. Pascal. 1986.
The effect of the marginal ice zone on the directional wave spectrum of the ocean.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 16 (2): 358-376.

Abstract:
Presents results of experiments carried out in northern Greenland Sea during July 1984. First measurements of directional behaviour of wave fields near ice margins. Offers explanation of observed effects in terms of scattering theory, which also gives good fit to observed rates of attenuation within ice.

Wadhams, P., V.A. Squire, D.J. Goodman, A.M. Cowan, S.C. Moore. 1988.
The attenuation rates of ocean waves in the marginal ice zone.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (C6): 6799-6818.

Abstract:
During field operations in Greenland and Bering seas in 1978, 1979, and 1983, experiments were carried out in which wave energy was measured along line of stations running from open sea deep into sea-ice field. Measurements were carried out by means of wave buoys in water and accelerometer packages on floes, with airborne vertical photography to supply information on floe-size distribution. Found that decay of waves is exponential, with decay coefficient which generally increases with frequency except for roll-over at highest frequencies. Observations can be fitted reasonably well to theory of one-dimensional scattering.

Wadhams, P., S.C.S. Wells, and D. Low. 1996.
The Antarctic ice edge in summer from SAR imagery and field observations.
In: Oceanology international 96: the global ocean - towards operational oceanography.
New Malden, Surrey: Spearhead: 3.
pp. 271-282.

Wadhams, P., and J.P. Wilkinson. 1996.
Measurements of sea-ice characteristics within the Odden ice tongue.
In: ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds).
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII): 2.
pp. 331-359.

Abstract:
The Odden ice tongue developed prominently during the winter of 1992-3. During 1992-3 the in-situ sea-ice characteristics within Odden were studied on four occasions. As well as direct observation and aerial photography, the measurement programme included retrieval and on-board analysis of frazil- and pancake-ice samples; wave measurements within Odden; and near-surface CTD measurements to examine the effect of melt on the upper ocean. By combining the results of in-situ sampling with the analysis of passive microwave and SAR data of the sea-ice extent through the winter, the salt flux into the ocean originating from brine release from sea ice during the growth phases of Odden was estimated.

Wadhams, P., and J. Wilkinson. 1997.
Jan Mayen cruise report.
Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute (Technical report 97-1).

Wadhams, P., and J.P. Wilkinson. 1999.
The physical properties of sea ice in the Odden ice tongue.
Deep-Sea Research II, 46: 1275-1300.

Abstract:
Discusses the structure of the Odden ice tongue in 1992-93, mainly sampled from F.S. Polarstern. Observes characteristics of frazil and pancake ice, especially that of salinity. By combining results of this sampling with an analysis of passive microwave and SAR data of sea-ice extent throughout winter, estimates were made of salt flux into the ocean originating from brine release from sea ice during the growth phases of Odden.

Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds). 1996.
ESOP: European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice-ocean interactions. Scientific report.
Brussels: European Commission (MAST-II Programme contract MAS2-CT93-0057, DGXII).

Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds). 1996.
ESOP - European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice - ocean interactions. Volume 1.
Cambridge: Sea Ice Group, Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge.

Abstract:
Report of the results of a study during 1993-96 of ice-ocean processes in the Greenland Sea, carried out by 22 institutes from 7 European countries constituting the European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Volume 1 contains an executive summary by Peter Wadhams and 11 papers on basin-scale physics of the area.

Wadhams, P., J.P. Wilkinson, and S.C.S. Wells (eds). 1996.
ESOP - European Subpolar Ocean Programme. Sea ice - ocean interactions. Volume 2.
Cambridge: Sea Ice Group, Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge.

Abstract:
Volume 2 covers 19 papers from ESOP carried out during 1993-96, and are on meso- and small-scale physics of the convection region in the Greenland Sea, and on the carbon cycle in this region, carried out by 22 European institutes.

Wells, S., C. Shipman, and P. Wadhams. 1995.
HMS Endurance, Weddell Sea, February 1995, data report.
Cambridge: SPRI (SPRI Sea Ice Technical Report).

Wells, S., M. Tadross, D. Garbett, and shipboard scientific party. 1995.
Sea ice observations log.
Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Initial reports, 151: 423-452.

Wells, S., M. Tadross, and shipboard scientific party. 1995.
Sea ice physics.
Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Initial reports, 151: 49-53.

Wilkinson, J.P. and Wadhams, P. 1999.
Pancake drifting buoys.
In: International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB); report of the second session of programme participants (Naples, Italy, 11-13 May 1998).
[n.pl.]: World Climate Research Programme, D6.
pp. 1-4.

Abstract:
Describes GPS/Argos pancake buoys, designed to match size and shape of pancake ice, and used in Greenland Sea and Antarctic waters to study sea ice dynamics, including formation of pancake ice; its incorporation into pack ice; and break-up of ice in summer.

[Abstracts by Ailsa Macqueen, Oliver Merrington and Sally Stonehouse (WDCGC, Scott Polar Research Institute).]